Technology Innovation Hub

The Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) is the country’s oldest multi- disciplinary engineering institute, which has dedicated itself to the nation for the last 100 years. IIT(BHU)’s mandates are to identify new and emerging areas in the context of national development goals and to initiate timely interventions for fostering such areas for creating strategic leadership. The area of Data Analytics and Predictive Technologies (DAPT) has been identified as one of the emerging fields whose progress will add significant impact on a number of verticals of the economy, such as, Telecommunications, Power, Road Transport and Highways, Defence Research and Development, and Health and Family Welfare. Further relevant areas are urban smart city initiatives, including city-wide water distribution, waste management, air quality monitoring and control, as well as manufacturing and governance at national and international scales. This Detailed Project Report (DPR) on National Mission on Data Analytics and Predictive Technologies (NM-DAPT) presents an overview of DAPT in general, outlining the importance of disruptive innovations for the modernisation of socio-technical systems and services. The activities envisioned under this mission will provide a great fillip to Indian manufacturing and societal betterment, via the development of new protocols, inventions of novel products/processes and services. The endeavour shall catalyse the creation of skilled young engineers, researchers, technicians, and entrepreneurs, together with human resource at all levels, besides become a key contributor to realizing the vision of “Digital India”, “Innovate in India”, and “Make in India”.

The DPR describes the underlying technologies and innovations, provides a preview of the many research issues, and discusses the national and international state-of-the-art approaches falling within the ambit of DAPT. The DPR contains a thorough analysis of the skill gaps, besides projecting the upcoming deluge of the demands for skilled human resource for the technological and scientific upliftment in all the sectors of industry and society. IIT(BHU) has traditional strengths in the development of smart sensors and system (SSS), development and Information and Communications Technology (ICT), as well as in the frontier disciplines of Materials science, Pharmaceutics and Bio Medical engineering, thereby harnessing diversified application areas of interdisciplinary academic and research pursuits with deep scientific and analytical skills. IIT(BHU) is putting extensive thrust/application for its contribution towards modernisation of the country's core sector applications to Power, Manufacturing, Smart City, Mobility, Intelligent Networking, Armed forces response, and Healthy Wellbeing, for smart management of societal needs. These are the niche areas that will give India, our country, the advantage for achieving well timed leadership in the critical and emerging field of interdisciplinary data analytics and predictive technologies (DAPT). The term “Data Analytics and Predictive Technologies (DAPT)” refers to the application of pattern recognition and inference engine as a smart decision support interface, to take timely decisions and deploy necessary actuation, in order to take holistic control of the real-life situations, either in online or off-line. Historically the first DAPT devices are from the age of ancient antiquity, such as the well-known Astrolabe and Antikythera calculators which were mechanical analog computers, developed around 500 BC in Asia minor, for aiding geographical surveying, navigation, and astronomical predictions. DAPT’s earliest efforts to embed computers in physical situations to control and optimise the performance manifests in the world’s first long-range guided ballistic missile, V2, developed by Germany in the second world war during 1944. A later classical example of DAPT is from the 1970s, namely the embedded computer control of motor vehicle engines. Today, the term DAPT is used for systems involving intelligent pattern-recognition based decision support interfaces backed up by densely embedded sensors and actuators, interconnected by the Internet of Things (IoT), with computation occurring within the network, or at the edge, or in the cloud, for the purpose of observing, controlling, and optimising the performance of technical/societal/human systems, such as smart cities, smart energy grids, smart urban water networks, smart homes, smart farms or smart healthtech.

The term smart states that the corresponding system (or “vertical,” e.g., an urban transportation network, soldier protection, or healthcare diagnostics) is being enhanced by DAPT technology, the work on each vertical segment depends on the integration of several techniques, or “horizontals,” e.g., sensors, wireless communication, cloud computing, and data analytics). With the increasing need for efficient utilization of scarce resources such as water and energy, increasing urbanization, diagnostic/therapeutic delays, and increasing awareness of the impacton the climate due to human activities, there is going to be increasing emphasis on "smartening up" our socio-technical systems, thereby requiring us to deploy the technology of DAPT. The development of DAPT technologies requires fundamental scientific and mathematical advances in understanding of the system models, learning algorithms, wide variety of simple to deep networks, along with infrastructural components in terms of materials and devices, communications, computing and control over networks, along with machine vision, robotics, brain-machine interfaces for smart actuations, and neuroimaging platforms for cognitive and neuronal engineering. Although the practical DAPT arena of the near future will be built on standard digital electronics, digital computing, and digital communications, rapid advances are happening in the technology areas of Quantum Computing, DNA Computing, Psychodynamic Affective Computing, and Brain-based Computing, where even the current computational paradigm will also change. To engage the expertise of our scientific community, to generate Human Resources for the future, and to develop our expertise and technologies in DAPT, the Mission envisages support from national research groups in all allied technologies as well. National Mission on DAPT will empower National Critical Infrastructure (NCI) on intelligent breeds of innovative systems and will carry the potential to significantly impact daily lives as they form the basis for emerging and future smart services. Further, increased use of DAPT will also safeguard the new cyber security threats and would intelligently protect us from adverse consequences over the nation, as a country and the society as a whole.

This DPR is a projection of the countrywide efforts being pursued by IIT (BHU) to assess the importance of DAPT as a technology, uncover the core R&D issues, assess the national status of the technology, and identify the national strengths and weaknesses for rolling out DAPT as a product for societal and industrial application, and for making India a forerunner, all across the globe, and particularly in Asia. This DPR also details the methods and structures to connect NM- DAPT with national developmental objectives, and aligning with the numerous National Missions of various Ministries of GOI, along with particular emphasis on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) of the U.N. The DPR captures the aspirations of the citizens, assesses the present status of DAPT in terms of research or technology potential, and identifies various stakeholders across the sectors. It also carries a SWOT analysis, examines the legal and policy framework, probes the market opportunities and the demand for workforce skills and presents the nationally-significant skill deficits. NM-DAPT and the associated activities will be coordinated under one umbrella. The major sub- missions or programmes of the mission will be on (i) Technology Development, (ii) Establishment of Centres of Excellence, (iii) HRD & Skill Development, (iv) Innovation, Entrepreneurship & Start-up Ecosystem and (v) International linkages & collaborations; each further split into a number of components (projects/schemes). The Mission will support research and innovation in academic and research institutions as well as industry and the venture business system, in areas such as those described earlier, leading to the development of DAPT technologies and applications. The NM-DAPT will support centers of Excellence (CoEs) in academic and research institutions across the country, in association with the industrial and financial sector, with significant economic and technical collaborations and with promises of technology adoption of the products so developed, for social upliftment. TheCoEs will focus on the development of disruptive innovations in interdisciplinary, collaborative, and translational research to generate core domain knowledge and know-how. As per the mandate, IIT(BHU) will develop enterprise grade prototypes and proofs-of-concepts (PoC) following internationally standardised norms (e.g. IEEE, E.U.-ESO, FDA and others) and translate them into products, in conjunction with industry and start-ups leading to significant job creation and economic growth, across the country and the globe.

Skill development, HRD and nurturing the start-ups through entrepreneurship programmes are also one of the goals of the NM-DAPT at IIT (BHU). Development and deployment of smart systems-of-systems, enhanced with DAPT applications, will require skilled human resources and faculty re-training at all levels, in technologies such as the intelligent IoT systems, design and deployment of low power wide area wireless sensor networks, machine learning and data analytics, together with security and privacy for the development and acceptance DAPT, both in the industries and by the society. At the deployment level, just as in the 1990s where there grew a need for digital communication network deployment technicians, there will emerge the need for the DAPT competent manpower for its strategic deployment and success in the form of products. There is a need to generate an advanced level of skilled HR to meet the emerging demands across the sectors. The NM-DAPT at IIT (BHU) will also develop and establish research collaborations with international academic & research institutions for the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in DAPT and associated research in the country. The NM-DAPT is proposed to be implemented over five years. This DPR first provides an overview of DAPT as a major emerging technology and then details the objectives of the NM- DAPT programme, the implementation mechanisms, the legal framework, the budgetary requirements of the various sub-programmes, the measurable outcomes and the review mechanisms, and the mission management structure. The technology innovation hub at IIT (BHU) aims to become a pioneer in leveraging the depth and breadth of interdisciplinary data analytics and predictive technologies to thoroughly support the national mission of a thriving digital India. The effect of these efforts would be manifested primarily in five domains of field of Telecommunications, Power, Road Transport and Highways, Defence Research and Development, Health and Family Welfare.
The implications of DAPT for these five domains of the economy are elucidated below.

The fourth industrial revolution is around the corner. So far, information technology had been the primary thrust/application, and all industrial and societal processes have been put on network. Much real-time and off-line data are being gathered. ‘Trillion sensors and actuators’ in any walk of life is the new paradigm. Computation and analytics are now the key for controlling physical systems and assured sensing and actuation is the new challenge. With such challenges, current networks that are based on best-delivery-efforts will no more be suitable. Even, we cannot afford to miss any single bit of information at the sensor side or the signal which has been sent to any single actuator. Each bit is essential and any mistake is unacceptable. Accordingly, whole new sets of new networking protocols with guaranteed-delivery of services will be needed. In the Cyber Physical System paradigm, it will require innovative approaches for the air interface providing massive scale transport over TCP – Ethernet IP and Time Sensitive Networks (TSN). There is need for ultra-low latency, both in packet transfer and computation, leading to hybridisation of computer hardware with virtualised software based computation on the network interfaces, supporting massive ‘softwarization’, converging to IT methods and supporting absolute convergence of sensing and actuation well in tune with the data analytics and predictive technologies to impart intelligent automation. We are at the threshold of a new revolution desiring holistic innovations and inventions to deliver such high-performance requirements. The proposed TIH for mounting a national mission on data analytics and predictive technologies (NM-DAPT) will lead India to produce innovations, inventions and new technology developments in the area of Intelligent Networks and Communication Systems, seeking state-of- the-art delivery of teaching, learning and manpower skilling, all across the globe, to design, deploy and run products and technologies for seamless adoption of DAPT.

The DAPT on Power is one the thrust/application areas recognized by the IIT (BHU) for its planned Centre on Data Analytics and Predictive Technologies. The DAPT at IIT (BHU) will undertake the technology development using DAPT for environment friendly, smart home automation with the system of Internet of Things (IoT)-activated smart devices that can be controlled remotely. The activities envisioned under the DAPT will provide a great impetus to India’s Smart Cities Mission in terms of environmentally friendly, reliable, efficient, and IoT activated optimum power generation/flow and thus, setting up a DAPT based smart grid for smart homes and cities. The Mission will help in manufacturing via the invention of new products, services and the creation of skilled young human resource at all levels (technicians, researchers, scientists, and entrepreneurs). The initiative of DAPT will become a key contributor to realizing the vision of “Digital India.” An assessment of the estimated skill gaps is contained, besides the expected need for human resources in existing and new jobs across the infrastructural development of the country. The DAPT will be used for system-based power electronics involving embedded sensors, actuators, interconnected by IoT, with computing in the network for the purpose of optimising the socio- technical systems, such as smart energy grids for smart homes/cities. The development of DAPT will catalyse rigorous scientific advances in power processors, sensors, communications, and control over networks, for a variety of physical systems. In the DPR, the DAPT sector covers the culmination of a consultative process to assess the importance of the DAPT as a technology for smart cities mission, along with exploring the core R&D issues.

The proposed Detailed Project Report describes the requirements of technologies, need of the future research, and the forecasting of future events based on what happened in the past, using artificial intelligence or machine learning. The DPR also includes areas in which predictive analytics may play an important role in the near future, specifically those pertaining to combat readiness like defence equipment and their parts replacement, effectiveness of a soldier in a real combat scenario, and medical attention requirement in a particular combat scenario etc. DPR is addressing crucial areas of defence like (a) border surveillance and role of drones and radars for surveillance, (b) microwave techniques for imaging, (c) stealth technique based on advanced polymer materials, (d) 5G for defence communications, (f) power systems for defence, (g) explosive detection, (h) smart sensors for soldiers and (i) and biosensors for safety and readiness of soldiers etc. An assessment of the anticipated skill gaps will be studied, besides the expected need for human resources in existing and new job sectors. The Institute has strength in Information and Communications Technology, academic and research with deep scientific and analytical skills, and having extensive experience in core engineering such as Electrical and electronics, computer, transportation, materials and biomaterials, mechanical and pharmaceutic engineering. These are the advantages for the institute for achieving leadership in the critical and emerging field of Interdisciplinary Data analytics and predictive technology. This DPR assesses the importance of DAPT as a defence technology, uncover the core R&D issues, assess the national status of the technology, and identify the national strengths and weaknesses. The consultative process also explored methods and structures to connect NM-ICPS with national developmental objectives with particular emphasis on Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's). The DPR captures the aspirations of both the defence forces as well as the general citizenry, and assesses the present status of DAPT in terms of research, technology potential and identifies various stakeholders across the sectors. It also carries a SWOT analysis, examines the legal and policy framework, assesses market opportunities and the demand for workforce skills and presents skill deficits in this novel endeavour towards enhancing the efficiency of the armed forces.

Transportation plays a vital role in transporting goods and services from one location to another. The growing levels of road congestion and air pollution has led to the development of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) that uses sensor data and communication technology to aid drivers, shippers and highway agencies to make fast, accurate and optimal decisions that reduce carbon footprints, minimize time lost due to congestion, while increasing safety, reliability and efficiency. Sensors are becoming cheaper while the software that runs them as well as technology for collecting and managing data is ever improving. There is an extensive opportunity for India to become a pioneer in applying ITS technologies and set an example especially for developing countries where ITS applications are still beginning to appear. The vast amount of data already collected through GPS (smart phones), weigh-in-motion (toll plazas) and other sensors needs to be standardized for efficient fusion of data from multitude of sensors. IIT (BHU) aims to be the center of excellence that would develop, facilitate and implement ITS in developing Indian cities into smart communities while at the same time preparing human resources equipped with interdisciplinary tools and techniques to understand, implement and evaluate ITS in modern India.

A healthy and productive brain and mind system of an individual is a sine qua non for full economic development and contribution of the persona in the advancing society today. An efficient physiological and cognitive readiness of an individual has great contribution, not only to his health and welfare, but also to his education, employability and realization. The area of focus formulated here is Brain/Mind Healthcare, as W.H.O. study emphasizes that disease load due to Brain/Mind illness has the maximal economic burden to the society, even exceeding the combined burden of Cancer and Heart disease put together. Accordingly, IIT (BHU) has proposed the program om National Mission on DAPT on Brain/Mind Health (NM-DAPT- BMH). The two major aspects of healthcare are (i) Screening or Diagnosis, (ii) Therapy or Treatment, while other collateral aspects are modalities that enable the following attainments: (iii) Disease Prevention, (iv) Rehabilitation, and (v) Health Promotion. IIT (BHU) has well acknowledged expertise in the Health-related sector, having departments/schools/centres on Bio Medical engineering, Pharmaceutics, Biochemical engineering, as well as Centre on Tissue engineering & Biomaterials. Further, the IIT (BHU) has close collaboration with in-campus premier clinical institutions, such as Tata Memorial Centre – Varanasi (DAE, GOI), and IMS (BHU), the Institute of Medical Sciences, recently upgraded to AIIMS level institution, which has a nationally renowned Neuro Centre and departments on Psychiatry and Mental Health. Diagnostic and Screening Systems: There is a crucial Indian need for formulation of non- invasive disease identification technology. Today, using principles of “Data Analytics”, the universally available high data throughput scanning, signalling or imaging systems furnishes a high-precision mapping of the structural and functional activity of organs or tissues. Naturally, for the health technology industry, a greatly unfilled gap for the country is to develop digital diagnostic/screening systems validated for tropical neurological/mental health disorders, tested in Indian populace with local doctors in both public sector and private sector health/medical units. In numerous diagnostic cases, it is found that that A.I. and Pattern Recognition methods often outperforms the clinical diagnostic efficiency of an overworked busy doctor, whether in the U.S or in India. Treatment Planning & Therapeutic Systems: Coming to the health management scenario, the advent of Medical Expert Systems and the International Collaborative Epidemiology Programs have demonstrated the very reliable validated ability of “Predictive Technologies”. Thereby, one can enable: (i) the automated forecasting of the most efficient therapy protocol, and (ii) judicious selection and optimization of the most feasible therapeutic agents, whether drugs, physiotherapy, cognitive stimulation, electrical pace-making etc. Such platforms are formulated by devising informatics-based Therapeutic Decision-making Systems, along with Treatment Planning Systems, using Machine Learning and Pattern Recognition principles. Needless to say, these approaches use computational Operations Research techniques to maximize the clinical performance of the therapy, as well as minimize the side-effects, and keep the cost within insurance payment or affordability bounds.

    TIH-Targets List

S.No. Target Area Set Targets Achieved Targets
1st Yr 2nd Yr 3rd Yr 4th Yr 5th Yr Total 1st Yr 2nd Yr 3rd Yr 4th Yr 5th Yr Total

Technology Development

1.1 No of Technologies (IP, Licensing, Patents etc) 0 4 5 7 4 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.2 Technology Products 0 3 3 6 3 15 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.3 Publications, IPR and other Intellectual activities 5 9 9 13 9 45 3 0 0 0 0 3
1.4 Increase in CPS Research Base 5 10 20 25 10 70 5 0 0 0 0 5

Entrepreneurship Development

2.1 Technology Business Incubator (TBI) 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
2.2 Start-ups & Spin-off companies 0 15 25 30 30 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
2.3 GCC - Grand Challenges & Competitions 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2.4 Promotion and Acceleration of Young and Aspiring technology entrepreneurs (PRAYAS) 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2.5 CPS-Entrepreneur In Residence (EIR) 3 3 5 5 5 21 0 0 0 0 0 0
2.6 Dedicated Innovation Accelerator (DIAL) 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2.7 CPS-Seed Support System (CPS- SSS) 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2.8 Job Creation 0 350 400 3000 5000 8750 0 0 0 0 0 0

Human Resource Development

3.1 Graduate Fellowships 30 40 50 50 50 220 0 0 0 0 0 0
3.2 Post Graduate Fellowships 3 4 10 10 15 42 0 0 0 0 0 0
3.3 Doctoral Fellowships 3 6 6 6 2 23 0 0 0 0 0 0
3.4 Faculty Fellowships 0 1 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
3.5 Chair Professors 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
3.6 Skill Development 60 80 85 85 100 410 60
0 0 0 0 60
3.7 Postdoctoral Fellowships 0 5 10 5 3 23 0 0 0 0 0 0

International Collaboration

4.1 International Collaboration 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 111 536 631 3245 5232 9755 69 0 0 0 0 69
Total Set Targets 9755 Total Achieved Targets 69